By R. M. Zinkernagel (auth.), Professor Dr. Michael B. A. Oldstone (eds.)
Viruses are studied both simply because they reason major human, animal or plant sickness or simply because they're priceless fabrics for probing simple phenomena in biology, chemistry, genetics and/or molecular biology. Arenaviruses are strangely attention-grabbing in that they occupy either different types. Arenaviruses reason a number of human illnesses identified basically because the hemorrhagic fevers taking place in South and Latin the United States (Bolivia: Machupo, Argentine, Junin virus, and Brazil: Sabia virus) and in Africa (Lassa fever virus). simply because such viruses produce profound disabilities and sometimes kill the individuals they infect, they're a resource of future health predicament and fiscal problem within the international locations the place they're regular. extra, they supply new difficulties for healthcare folks due to the narrowing of the area as viewers from many nations commute more and more to and from endemic components and should incubate the infectious agent taking it from a pandemic zone into a space the place the virus isn't really anticipated. Such situations at the moment are being re corded with expanding frequency. as well as those hemor rhagic fever viruses, the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can infect people all over the world, even though the sickness is traditionally much less disabling and critical than these elicited through the opposite arenaviruses. but, LCMV is of higher problem to non arenavirologists and experimentalists utilizing tissue tradition or ani mals, and so on. , simply because normal-appearing cultured cells or tissues from animals used for learn could be repeatedly contaminated with LCMV with out manifesting scientific disorder or cytopathology and should transmit that an infection to laboratory workers.
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Extra info for Arenaviruses II: The Molecular Pathogenesis of Arenavirus Infections
ST A Tl molecules, either as part of the ISGF3 or GAF complexes, are required for the transcription of a number genes, including IRF-I, 2'-5' oligoadenyate (2'-5' A) synthetase, and MxA. There is accumulating evidence, however, that STAT I also can serve as an inhibitor of gene expression. The IFN-C(/~ cytokines normally inhibit cellular proliferation in vitro in part by inhibiting the expression of certain genes such as the cellular proto-oncogene c-myc. In the absence of ST ATI, the inhibitory effects are abrogated (RAMANA et al.
WELSH 2 4 6 Introduction 29 Frequencies of Virus· Specific CD8 T Cells 30 Alloreactive CTL in Response to LCMV Infection. 31 Reactivation of Memory CD8 T Cells by Heterologous Viruses 32 Cytokine-Induced Bystander Activation of CDR T Cell Division 33 IFN-Induccd Bystander T Cell Attrition. 34 7 Minimal Proliferation of Bystander CD8 T Cells in Response to LCMV Infection . 3 Consequences of Bystander Events on T Cells During Virus Infection. T Cell Homeostasis Immune Deficiency . . Autoimmunity and Transplantation Tolerance 36 36 37 37 9 Conclusions.
These possibilities make the interpretation of whether a T cell is a true bystander or is receiving TCR stimulus extremely difficult. The term "activation" must also be clarified. T cells can be activated to proliferate, perform effector functions, and eventually to undergo activation-induced cell death (AI CD) as the immune response wanes. The term "proliferation" itself has caused much of the current controversy. It is apparent that a strong distinction between proliferation, an increase in cell number, and cell division must be made due to the fact that increased cell division can be offset by increased cell death.
Arenaviruses II: The Molecular Pathogenesis of Arenavirus Infections by R. M. Zinkernagel (auth.), Professor Dr. Michael B. A. Oldstone (eds.)