By Lauri Hannikainen
This paintings supplies a complete research of the Aland Islands foreign criminal prestige as a territory lower than Finnish sovereignty but demilitarized and independent, with a Swedish personality. The criminal prestige of this autonomy is tested, as are army concerns, and the Islands' dating with the european. the answer accomplished for Aland could provide a priceless version of autonomy, and this selection of essays can be of curiosity and use to scholars, pros, and someone excited about territorial autonomy as a potential technique of bettering political rights of minorities.
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Additional info for Autonomy and Demilitarisation in International Law:The Aland Islands in a Changing Europe
Sometimes, a distinction is made between an asset-based deﬁnition, which simply lists the types of property which amount to protected investments, and a corporation-based deﬁnition, which lists the assets which are owned by the corporation which makes the investment. No material difference ﬂows from this distinction. J. Hyde, ‘Economic Development Agreements’ (1962) 105 Hague Recueil 271. 3 The evolution of the meaning of the term ‘investment’ It is clear that, from early times, the meaning of investment in international law was conﬁned to foreign direct investment.
9 These sovereignty-based defences are often the 7 8 9 This clash of globalisations is discussed in M. Sornarajah, ‘The Clash of Globalisations: Its Impact on the International Law on Foreign Investment’ (2003) 10 Canadian Foreign Policy 1. ), Globalisation and the South (1997) 1. This is already evident in the introduction of exceptions relating to regulatory takings, defences based on the environment, the devising of an exceptional regime for taxation, self deﬁned national security exceptions and broad necessity defences which can be found in the US and Canadian model investment treaties.
This trend is already evident as leading companies of the United States and Europe are taken over by foreign investors from Asia and elsewhere. The rules the developed states crafted to protect the foreign investment of their nationals will soon come to haunt them. 9 These sovereignty-based defences are often the 7 8 9 This clash of globalisations is discussed in M. Sornarajah, ‘The Clash of Globalisations: Its Impact on the International Law on Foreign Investment’ (2003) 10 Canadian Foreign Policy 1.
Autonomy and Demilitarisation in International Law:The Aland Islands in a Changing Europe by Lauri Hannikainen