Read e-book online Basic Sciences for Obstetrics and Gynaecology PDF

By Tim Chard MD, FRCOG, Richard Lilford MRCOG, MRCP (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1447105958

ISBN-13: 9781447105954

ISBN-10: 3540677259

ISBN-13: 9783540677253

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Features of the composition of amniotic fluid Salts Proteins Lipids Hormones Bilirubin Water Cells Antibacterial factors Sodium and osmolality fall progressively, urea and creatinine increase. Total rises to 26 weeks. Levels around 1110 that of fetal serum and with a similar pattern. No fibrinogen. a-Fetoprotein levels peak at 10-12 weeks, are much higher than levels in maternal blood but ten -fold less than in fetal blood. Half the lipids are fatty acids and towards term include lecithin (lung surfactant).

18) Days 21-28 postconception (see Fig. 19) Primitive streak becomes prominent in caudal half of disc Primitive groove develops in primitive streak as mesoderm forms from primitive streak and moves laterally Allantois (diverticulum of endoderm) protrudes into body stalk Notochord (precursor of nucleus pulposus) develops from blastopore Ectoderm thickens (anterior -> posterior) to form neural plate and neural folds Mesoderm starts to divide into somites starting at the cephalic end (first four will form occiput) Neural folds fuse to form neural tube (anterior neuropore closes on days 24-25, and posterior neuropore on days 2630) Weeks 4-6 post conception (4-15 mm embryo) Weeks 6-8 postconception (15-30 mm embryo) Weeks 8-12 postconception (30-60 mm) Heart (mesoderm behind pharynx) is prominent (circulation established) Head is very prominent Pharyngeal arches form Connection between mid-gut and yolk sac constricts Otic depression forms Head proportionately smaller; neck can be recognised Optic vesicles appear Limb buds appear External ear forms Formation of face Digits and eyelids form Tail disappears All major structures formed.

I . ( - i '-~: . : . . . ... Notochord {lateral to this mesoderm is found) Yolk sac cavity Fig. 19. Longitudinal section of a 7-somite embryo; 24 days of embryonic life, Note that the pericardial cavity now lies below the cardiac tube, lobules and the cotyledons viewed as part of the gross morphology of the placenta. The two umbilical arteries divide into primary, secondary and tertiary branches corresponding to the stem villi. The tertiary branches break up into a capillary system in the terminal villi.

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Basic Sciences for Obstetrics and Gynaecology by Tim Chard MD, FRCOG, Richard Lilford MRCOG, MRCP (auth.)


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