By Michael G. Maxfield
This short advent to investigate equipment combines accessibility and a conversational writing kind with Michael G. Maxfield's services in criminology and legal justice. In fewer than four hundred pages, the textual content introduces you to the fundamentals of legal justice examine using actual facts and that includes insurance of such key matters as ethics, causation, validity, box study, and examine layout.
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Additional info for Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology
This expectation often involves the notion of causation: a person’s attributes on one variable are expected to cause or encourage a particular attribute on another variable. In the example just given, having a private attorney or a public defender seemed to cause a person to be sentenced to probation or prison, respectively. Apparently there is something about having a public defender that leads people to be sentenced to prison more often than if they are represented by a private attorney. Type of defense attorney and sentence are examples of independent and dependent variables, respectively.
The existence of exceptions does not invalidate the existence of regularities. Thus it is not important that a particular police ofﬁcer earns more money than a particular judge if, overall, judges earn more than police ofﬁcers. The pattern still exists. Social regularities represent probabilistic patterns, and a general pattern does not have to be reﬂected in 100 percent of the observable cases to be a pattern. This rule applies in the physical as well as the social sciences. In genetics, the mating of a blue-eyed person with a brown-eyed person will probably result in brown-eyed offspring.
Social scientists are interested in explaining aggregates, not individuals. Although social scientists observe people, they are primarily interested in discovering relationships that connect variables. Explanations may be idiographic or nomothetic. Data may be quantitative or qualitative. Theories may be inductive or deductive. ✪ Key Terms These terms are deﬁned in the chapter where they are set in boldface and can also be found in the glossary at the end of the book. aggregate, p. 13 attribute, p.
Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology by Michael G. Maxfield