By Henry N. Houérou
Protecting a space of over a hundred thirty million km2 spanning the Mediterranean, equator and tropics, the African continent contains a wonderful geographic variety. accordingly, it truly is characterized through tremendous variable climatic, edaphic and ecological stipulations, linked to a variety of normal crops and natural world, in addition to human inhabitants density, vegetation and cattle. during this booklet, Henry Le Hou?rou provides his bioclimatic and biogeographic class of Africa. The broad facts give you the foundation for comparisons among quite a few African areas, and with areas on different continents equivalent to Latin the USA or the Indian subcontinent. the implications represent a rational foundation for nationwide, nearby and sub-regional rural improvement making plans, and for agricultural study facing points akin to plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. attainable difficulties of purposes also are tested.
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Extra resources for Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa
Between 10°N and 10°S). 22 1 Introduction Fig. e. by a period when P falls below 1/3 of ETo. Whenever there are two dry and two rainy seasons, the regime is labelled “2” in Table A1; otherwise, it is labelled “1”, even if there are two rainy peaks. The labels “1” and “2” in Table A1 thus do not necessarily correspond with monomodal and bimodal regimes. My meaning of monomodal and bimodal is therefore identical to that of other authors such as Nicholson et al. (1988) and De Martonne (1926, 1927a, b).
A tropicality index—summer trimester precipitation/winter trimester precipitation (STP/WTP)—indicates the rate of “tropicality”, symmetrically to the “Mediterraneity index”, which is WTP/STP (Le Houérou 1999b, 2005a, b). South of the Tropic of Capricorn, the situation is much more complex since there are, in South Africa, both summer and winter rains. The proportion of these vary from N to S and W to E, as shown in Fig. 30. The proportion of summer rains varies from 85% at the tropic to less than 20% at the SW tip of the continent between the Cape of Good Hope and the mouth of the Orange River.
35 ETo = 459 mm Elev. 0 °C ETo = 1,311 mm d Gaborone (Botswana) Semi-arid tropical highland agro-bioclimate with temperate winters Lat. 24°40′S P = 520 mm 2t = 480 mm Long. 35 ETo = 461 mm Elev. e. as much as 3 times the rain-gauge precipitation, with no month recording less than 311 mm. Along the west coast of southern Africa, radiation and advection fog is formed when warm inshore surface water mixes with the upwelled cold water of the Benguela current. Nagel (1962) cites an average of 121 days of fog per annum for Swakopmund, with a recording of some 130 mm of water.
Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa by Henry N. Houérou