By Cornelius Leondes, Cornelius T. Leondes
As a result of advancements in robust laptop know-how, computational strategies, advances in a large spectrum of various applied sciences, and different advances coupled with go disciplinary ambitions among expertise and its enormously major utilized implications in human physique approaches, the sphere of biomechanics is evolving as a generally major sector. This 3rd quantity provides the advances in broadly various components with major implications for human betterment that take place consistently at a excessive expense. those comprise dynamics of musculo-skeletal platforms; mechanics of tough and smooth tissues; mechanics of muscle; mechanics of bone home improvement; mechanics of implant-tissue interfaces; cardiovascular and respiration biomechanics; mechanics of blood stream, ventilation, flow-prosthesis interfaces; mechanics of impression; dynamics of guy desktop interplay; and various different components. the nice breadth and intensity of the sector of biomechanics at the overseas scene calls for not less than 4 volumes for enough remedy. those 4 volumes represent a good built-in set that may be applied as person volumes. they supply a substantively major and really entire, in-depth therapy of biomechanic structures and methods that's such a lot definitely detailed at the foreign scene.
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Additional info for Biomechanical Systems: Techniques and Applications, Volume III: Musculoskeletal Models and Techniques
Biomechanics, 16, 253, 1983. 95. H. , Response of a two-dimensional dynamic model to externally applied forces and moments, J. , 105, 281, 1983. 96. H. , Dynamic modeling of the human knee joint, in Computational Methods in Bioengineering, Vol. 9, American Society of Mechanical Engineering, Chicago, 1988, 145. 97. , An experimental and analytical study of the dynamic properties of the human leg, J. Biomechanics, 2, 373, 1969. 98. , The mechanics of the knee joint in relation to normal walking, J.
Fig. 9 shows that the medial and lateral femoral contact points moved posteriorly and proximally as the knee was flexed from 0 to 90° of knee flexion. A two-point contact condition was maintained until about 66° of knee flexion. From there on, and until 90° of flexion, a one-point contact was predicted on the medial side. Fig. 10 shows that the medial tibial contact point moved anteriorly, while the lateral tibial contact point moved posteriorly as the knee was flexed from full extension. This motion is expected and can be thought of as a result of the femur rotating externally over fixed plateaus which causes the medial tibial contact point to move anteriorly and the lateral tibial contact point to move posteriorly.
Fig. 25 shows that the lateral collateral ligament sustained forces only in the first 45 to 60° of knee flexion, with a maximum value occurring near full extension. 13 Knee flexion angular velocity vs. flexion angle. 14 Varus-valgus angular velocity vs. flexion angle. The results show that the patterns of change in the ligamentous forces were not generally affected by changing the characteristics of the applied pulsing loads. However, increasing pulse amplitude (and/or duration) slightly affected the magnitude of the forces in the different ligamentous fibers.
Biomechanical Systems: Techniques and Applications, Volume III: Musculoskeletal Models and Techniques by Cornelius Leondes, Cornelius T. Leondes