By Y. C. Fung
The target of this booklet is still kind of like that said within the first variation: to give a entire viewpoint of biomechanics from the stand aspect of bioengineering, body structure, and scientific technology, and to improve mechanics via a chain of difficulties and examples. My three-volume set of Bio mechanics has been accomplished. they're entitled: Biomechanics: Mechanical houses of residing Tissues; Biodynamics: circulate; and Biomechanics: movement, move, rigidity, and progress; and this can be the 1st quantity. The mechanics prerequisite for all 3 volumes is still on the point of my booklet a primary path in Continuum Mechanics (3rd variation, Prentice-Hall, Inc. , 1993). within the decade of the Eighties the sector of Biomechanics improved tremen dously. New advances were made in all fronts. those who impact the fundamental knowing of the mechanical houses of residing tissues are defined intimately during this revision. The references are cited to this point.
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Additional info for Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues
Newton proposed the relationship r du dy = J1- (9) for the shear stress r, where J1 is the coefficient ofviscosity. In the centimetergram-second system of units, in which the unit of force is the dyne, the unit of J1 is called a poise, in honor of Poiseuille. 1 poise (P) is 10 N sjm 2 . 7:1 Newtonian concept ofviscosity. 01 poise for water at atmospheric pressure and 20°e. 7 poise. The viscosity ofliquids decreases as temperature increases. That of gases increases with increasing temperature. , (1) where (Jij is the stress tensor, ekl is the strain tensor, and C ijk1 is a tensor of elastic constants, or moduli, which are independent of stress or strain.
Thus, if the outer normal of a surface element points in the positive direction of the X2 axis and 1:22 is positive, the vector representing the component of normal stress acting on the surface element will point in the positive X2 direction. But if 1: 22 is positive while the outer normal points in the negative X2 axis direction, then the stress vector acting on the element also points to the negative X 2 axis direction (see Fig. 2:3). 2:3. We now give without prooffour important formulas concerning stresses.
1) where (Jij is the stress tensor, ekl is the strain tensor, and C ijk1 is a tensor of elastic constants, or moduli, which are independent of stress or strain. , when the elastic properties are identical in all directions. More precisely, isotropy for a material is defined by the requirement that the array of numbers C ijk1 has exactly the same numerical values no matter how the co ordinate system is oriented. An isotropie material has exactly two independent elastic constants, for which the Hooke's law reads (Jij = AealJ;j + 2j1eij' (2) The constants A and j1 are called the Lame constants.
Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues by Y. C. Fung