By James F. Rusling
Surveying distinct and smooth biomolecular movie methodologies and investigative concepts, this article examines motion pictures of biomolecules which could supply sturdy surfaces for catalyzing enzyme reactions, serve in biosensors and as biorecognition parts, mediate nanoparticle formation, and supply a foundation for basic stories and functions in biomedicine and biomedical units. The authors speak about designing sensible biomolecular motion pictures on electrodes, biomimetic membranes on steel helps, peptide and protein-based biomolecular assemblies, floor plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and biosensors.
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Additional info for Biomolecular Films (Surfactant Science Series)
Surfactant or lipid molecules contain charged or polar head groups and one or more long hydrocarbon tails (Fig. 14). The term surfactant (from surface-active agent) is more general, and the name lipid is usually reserved for biological surfactants that help to make up biomembranes. Molecular structure can be connected with supramolecular nanostructure by the surfactant packing parameter, v=ao lc , where v is the volume of the hydrocarbon tail region of the surfactant, ao is the optimal area per head group, and lc is the critical chain length [123,124].
The Marcus theory of electron transfer correctly predicts the increase in the electrontransfer rate constant with increasing applied potential, with eventual attainment of an upper limit . According to Marcus theory, the rate constant ks for outer-sphere electron transfer depends on activation free energy DG Ã : ÀDGÃ ks ¼ kA exp ð12Þ RT where k is the electronic transmission coe⁄cient, A is collision frequency, R is the gas constant, and T is temperature in kelvin . DG Ã is related to the standard free energy DG0 and the reorganization energy l for the electron transfer: ðDG 0 þ lÞ2 4l The potential dependence of ks arises from the relation DG Ã ¼ DG 0 % ÀnF Z ð13Þ ð14Þ 0 where the overpotential Z ¼ ðE À E 0 Þ and E is the applied potential.
Although no direct electron transfer peaks were found, electron transfer involving this enzyme was con¢rmed by catalytic currents for reduction of Hþ and oxidation of H2. In this case, addition of polyamine co-adsorbates did not help to form a stable ¢lm. Tao et al. adsorbed ¢lms of cyt c and myoglobin (Mb) on freshly cleaved highly ordered basal-plane pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) [94,95]. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a randomly distributed, adsorbed mono- Designing Functional Biomolecular Films 27 layer of cyt c after a few minutes, but complete formation of chainlike aggregates of adsorbed Mb on HOPG took 40 min.
Biomolecular Films (Surfactant Science Series) by James F. Rusling