By Geoffrey H. Bourne
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Extra resources for Calcification and Physiology
Organelles in the Local Mechanism of Calcification The localization of the initial deposits of mineral has been correlated with the following organelles in and around the cells of hard tissue: mitochondria, cytoplasmic RNA-associated particles, matrix vesicles, and matrix dense bodies. Matthews et al. (1970) demonstrated quite conclusively that mitochondrial granules vary in size and number in the zone of provisional calcification of epiphysial cartilage; he emphasized that there is a question whether the granules represent an intracellular mechanism of storage of calcium phosphate in cells or whether the granules represent a mechanism for the control of the mineralization process.
Contamination from a dispersed, calcified tissue 28 Marshall R. Urist matrix, which produces erroneously high total cell calcium values ( Dziak and Brand, 1974), may also produce such extremely high concentrations of calcium and could be responsible for precipitation of calcium phosphate in matrix vesicles. VII. Enzymes The localization of the calcium deposits in specialized tissues is controlled by both nonenzymatic and enzymatic reactions (McLean and Urist, 1968). These chemical reactions convert noncalcifiable to calcifiable matrix and transform subcrystalline calcium phosphates to crystalline apatite.
Both intra- and extracellular fluid compartments may contain inhibitors that function either in the intracellular organelles or in extracellular sites. The magnesium-sensitive phosphate-independent binding of calcium or strontium by the catalytic matrix (Wadkins et al, 1974) is consistent with the postulates of Waddell ( 1972 ) and the theory of triphasic mechanism of calcification proposed by Urist et al. (1964, 1971, 1973). 3 Measurements of the uptake of H-labeled tetracycline by Wadkins et al.
Calcification and Physiology by Geoffrey H. Bourne