By Christopher P. I. Mahonge
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Extra resources for Co-managing Complex Social-ecological Systems in Tanzania: The Case of Lake Jipe Wetland (Environmental Policy)
In practice, participation entails diverse and heterogeneous community groups and diverse government units governed by diverse and heterogeneous formal and informal institutions. This diversity has implications for the co-management of natural resources. In the coming section, the influence of heterogeneity in the collaborative management of natural resources involving governmental and community institutions and actors is analysed. 4 Heterogeneity Although heterogeneity is a term with many meanings based on the context, in the present thesis it implies the existence of multiple and diverse user groups, either permanently or on a seasonal basis in a given area, with the aim of exploiting natural resources.
2001). With their focus on leadership from the community point of view, Pomeroy et al. (2001) assert that leaders should be chosen from among the users by the users themselves in order to gain legitimacy and respect from their counterparts. However, they also highlight that there must be institutional provisions that clearly define the time period during which one can remain a leader so that no one maintains the position in the long term. Other community institutional actors should also be given an opportunity to develop leadership skills.
Nielsen & Vedsmand, 1999; Sen & Nielsen, 1996) co-management is the sharing of responsibilities only between the government and the community. Co-management can also take the form of Pinkerton’s horizontal folk-managed systems and vertical contracting out of the state management powers model (Pinkerton, 1994). In this case, there is a horizontal continuum of government and community management systems. On one side of the continuum is a near-total state management system, whereas on the other side of the continuum is near-total self-management system.
Co-managing Complex Social-ecological Systems in Tanzania: The Case of Lake Jipe Wetland (Environmental Policy) by Christopher P. I. Mahonge