By Paul Brooker (auth.)
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By the beginning of the 1980s Mao's protege and chosen successor as Party Chairman, Hua Guofeng, had already seen his preeminence undermined by a group of senior Party figures who wished to see their most famous member, the pragmatic and administratively expert Deng Xiaoping, become the senior leader of the regime. Deng's supporters had won a major victory in the watershed December 1978 Central Committee meeting which adopted Deng's pragmatic approach and emphasised the need for economic development rather than Maoist class struggle.
41 Such nationalist grounds were also being used to justify the rejection of Western-style democracy, which would supposedly lead to disunity and disorder and encourage the foreign aggression that had humiliated China in the pre-Communist era. 43 By the mid-1990s the regime appeared to be falling back on nationalism as a means of strengthening social solidarity as well as pohtical loyalty. '46 ECONOMIC POLICY The regime's dramatic shift in economic policy that transformed a leftist version of orthodox Communist economy into a mixed, plan/ market and state/private economy deserves special attention for several reasons.
40) Although still falling far short of the prominence given to nationalism by the North Korean regime and ideology, Chinese nationalism was increasingly employed in the early 1990s to justify the regime's rule 'the central appeal' was 'increasingly based on nationalism'. 41 Such nationalist grounds were also being used to justify the rejection of Western-style democracy, which would supposedly lead to disunity and disorder and encourage the foreign aggression that had humiliated China in the pre-Communist era.
Defiant Dictatorships by Paul Brooker (auth.)